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(南极条约成员国加入时间一览表)

(馆藏各国为纪念“南极条约”签署、生效发行的集邮品一览表)

南极条约

 

 

THE ANTARCTIC TREATY

 

阿根廷、澳大利亚、比利时、智利、法兰西共和国、日本、新西兰、挪威、南非联邦、苏维埃社会主义共和国联盟、大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国和美利竖合众国政府,承认为了全人类的利益,南极应永远专为和平目的而使用,不应成为国际纷争的场所和对象;认识到在国际合作下对南极的科学调查,为科学知识作出了重大贡献;确信建立坚实的基础,以便按照国际地球物理年期间的实践,在南极科学调查自由的基础上继续和发展国际合作,符合科学和全人类进步的利益; 并确信保证南极只用于和平目的和继续保持在南极的国际和睦的条约将促进联合国宪章的宗旨和原则;协议如下:
 

The Governments of Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Chile, the French Republic, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, the Union of South Africa, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America, Recognizing that it is in the interest of all mankind that Antarctica shall continue for ever to be used exclusively for peaceful purposes and shall not become the scene or object of international discord; Acknowledging the substantial contributions to scientific knowledge resulting from international cooperation in scientific investigation in Antarctica; Convinced that the establishment of a firm foundation for the continuation and development of such cooperation on the basis of freedom of scientific investigation in Antarctica as applied during the International Geophysical Year accords with the interests of science and the progress of all mankind; Convinced also that a treaty ensuring the use of Antarctica for peaceful purposes only and the continuance of international harmony in Antarctica will further the purposes and principles embodied in the Charter of the United Nations; Have agreed as follows:

 

第一条

一、南极应只用于和平目的。一切具有军事性质的措施,例如建立军事基地,建筑要塞,进行军事演习以及任何类型武器的试验等等,均予禁止。

二、本条约不禁止为了科学研究或任何其它和平目的而使用军事人员或军事设备。

 

ARTICLE I


1. Antarctica shall be used for peaceful purposes only. There shall be prohibited, inter alia, any measures of a military nature, such as the establishment of military bases and fortifications, the carrying out of military maneuvers, as well as the testing of any type of weapons.

2. The present Treaty shall not prevent the use of military personnel or equipment for scientific research or for any other peaceful purpose.

 

第二条

在国际地球物理年内所实行的南极科学调查自由和为此目的而进行的合作,应按照本条约的规定予以继续。

 

ARTICLE II

Freedom of scientific investigation in Antarctica and cooperation toward that end, as applied during the International Geophysical Year, shall continue, subject to the provisions of the present Treaty.

 

第三条

一、为了按照本条约第二条的规定,在南极促进科学调查方面的国际合作,缔约各方同意在一切实际可行的范围内;

(甲)交换南极科学规划的情报,以便保证用最经济的方法获得最大的效果;

(乙)在南极各考察队和各考察站之间交换科学人员;

(丙)南极的科学考察报告和成果应予交换并可自由得到。

二、在实施本条款时,应尽力鼓励同南极具有科学和技术兴趣的联合国专门机构以及其它国际组织建立合作的工作关系。

 

ARTICLE III


1. In order to promote international cooperation in scientific investigation in Antarctica, as provided for in Article II of the present Treaty, the Contracting Parties agree that, to the greatest extent feasible and practicable:

(a) information regarding plans for scientific programs in Antarctica shall be exchanged to permit maximum economy and efficiency of operations;

(b) scientific personnel shall be exchanged in Antarctica between expeditions and stations;

(c) scientific observations and results from Antarctica shall be exchanged and made freely available.


2. In implementing this Article, every encouragement shall be given to the establishment of cooperative working relations with those Specialized Agencies of the United Nations and other international organizations having a scientific or technical interest in Antarctica.

 

第四条

一、本条约的任务规定不得解释为:

(甲)缔约任何一方放弃在南极原来所主张的领土主权权利或领土的要求。

(乙)缔约任何一方全部或部分放弃由于它在南极的活动或由于它的国民在南极的活动或其它原因而构成的对南极领土主权的要求的任何根据;

(丙)损害缔约任何一方关于它承认或否认任何其它国家在南极的领土主权的要求或要求的根据的立场。

二、在本条约有效期间所发生的一切行为或活动,不得构成主张、支持或否定对南极的领土主权的要求的基础,也不得创立在南极的任何主权权利。在本条约有效期间,对在南极的领土主权不得提出新的要求或扩大现有的要求。

 

ARTICLE IV


1. Nothing contained in the present Treaty shall be interpreted as:


(a) a renunciation by any Contracting Party of previously asserted rights of or claims to territorial sovereignty in Antarctica;

(b) a renunciation or diminution by any Contracting Party of any basis of claim to territorial sovereignty in Antarctica which it may have whether as a result of its activities or those of its nationals in Antarctica, or otherwise;

(c) prejudicing the position of any Contracting Party as regards its recognition or non-recognition of any other State’s right of or claim or basis of claim to territorial sovereignty in Antarctica.

2. No acts or activities taking place while the present Treaty is in force shall constitute a basis for asserting, supporting or denying a claim to territorial sovereignty in Antarctica or create any rights of sovereignty in Antarctica. No new claim, or enlargement of an existing claim, to territorial sovereignty in Antarctica shall be asserted while the present Treaty is in force.

 

第五条

一、禁止在南极进行任何核、爆炸和在该区域处置放射性尘埃。

二、如果在使用核子能包括核爆炸和处置放射性尘埃方面达成国际协定,而其代衷有权参加本条约第九条所列举的会议的缔约各方均为缔约国时,则该协定所确立的规则均适用于南极。

 

ARTICLE V


1. Any nuclear explosions in Antarctica and the disposal there of radioactive waste material shall be prohibited. 23 The Antarctic Treaty


2. In the event of the conclusion of international agreements concerning the use of nuclear energy, including nuclear explosions and the disposal of radioactive waste material, to which all of the Contracting Parties whose representatives are entitled to participate in the meetings provided for under Article IX are parties, the rules established under such agreements shall apply in Antarctica.

 

第六条

本条约的规定应适用于南纬60。以南的地区,包括一切冰架;但本条约的规定不应损害或在任何方面影响任何一个国家在该地区内根据国际法所享有的对公海的权利或行使这些权利。

 

ARTICLE VI


The provisions of the present Treaty shall apply to the area south of 60o South Latitude, including all ice shelves, but nothing in the present Treaty shall prejudice or in any way affect the rights, or the exercise of the rights, of any State under international law with regard to the high seas within that area.

 

第七条

一、为了促进本条约的宗旨,并保证这些规定得到遵守,其代表有权参加本条约第九条所述的会议的缔约各方,应有权指派观察员执行本条所规定的任何视察。观察员应为指派他的缔约国的国民。观察员的姓名应通知其它有权指派观察员的缔约每一方,对其任命的终止也应给以同样的通知。

二、根据本条第一款的规定所指派的每一个观察员,应有完全的自由在任何时间进入南极的任何一个或一切地区。

三、南极的一切地区,包括一切驻所、装置和设备,以及在南极装卸货物或人员的地点的一切船只的飞机,应随时对根据本条第一款所指派的任何观察员开放,任其视察。

四、有权指派观察员的任何缔约国,可于任何时间在南极的任何或一切地区进行空中视察。

五、缔约每一方,在本条约对它生效时,应将下列情况通知其它缔约各方,并且以后应事先将下列情况通知它们:

(甲)它的船只或国民前往南极和在南极所进行的一切考察,以及在它领土上组织或从它领土上出发的一切前往南极的考察队。

(乙)它的国民在南极所占有的一切驻所;

(丙)它依照本条约第一条第二款规定的条件,准备带进南极的任何军事人员或装备。

 

ARTICLE VII


1. In order to promote the objectives and ensure the observance of the provisions of the present Treaty, each Contracting Party whose representatives are entitled to participate in the meetings referred to in Article IX of the Treaty shall have the right to designate observers to carry out any inspection provided for by the present Article. Observers shall be nationals of the Contracting Parties which designate them. The names of observers shall be communicated to every other Contracting Party having the right to designate observers, and like notice shall be given of the termination of their appointment.

2. Each observer designated in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 1 of this Article shall have complete freedom of access at any time to any or all areas of Antarctica.

3. All areas of Antarctica, including all stations, installations and equipment within those areas, and all ships and aircraft at points of discharging or embarking cargoes or personnel in Antarctica, shall be open at all times to inspection by any observers designated in accordance with paragraph 1 of this Article.

4. Aerial observation may be carried out at any time over any or all areas of Antarctica by any of the Contracting Parties having the right to designate observers.

5. Each Contracting Party shall, at the time when the present Treaty enters into force for it, inform the other Contracting Parties, and thereafter shall give them notice in advance, of

(a) all expeditions to and within Antarctica, on the part of its ships or nationals, and all expeditions to Antarctica organized in or proceeding from its territory;

(b) all stations in Antarctica occupied by its nationals; and

(c) any military personnel or equipment intended to be introduced by it into Antarctica subject to the conditions prescribed in paragraph 2 of Article I of the present Treaty.

第八条

一、为了便利缔约各方行使本条约规定的职责,并且不损害缔约各方关于在南极对所有其他人员行使管辖权的各自立场,根据本条约第七条第一款指派的观察员和根据本条约第三条第一款(乙)项而交换的科学人员以及任何这些人员的随从人员,在南极为了行使他们的职责而逗留期间发生的一切行为或不行为,应只受他们所属缔约一方的管辖。

二、在不损害本条第一款的规定,并在依照第九条第一款(戊)项采取措施以前,有关的缔约各方对在南极行使管辖权的任何争端应立即共同协商,以求达到相互可以接受的解决。

 


ARTICLE VIII


1. In order to facilitate the exercise of their functions under the present Treaty, and without prejudice to the respective positions of the Contracting Parties relating to jurisdiction over all other persons in Antarctica, observers designated under paragraph 1 of Article VII and scientific personnel exchanged under subparagraph 1(b) of Article III of the Treaty, and members of the staffs accompanying any such persons, shall be subject only to the jurisdiction of the Contracting Party of which they are nationals in respect of all acts or omissions occurring while they are in Antarctica for the purpose of exercising their functions.

2. Without prejudice to the provisions of paragraph 1 of this Article, and pending the adoption of measures in pursuance of subparagraph 1(e) of Article IX, the Contracting Parties concerned in any case of dispute with regard to the exercise of jurisdiction in Antarctica shall immediately consult together with a view to reaching a mutually acceptable solution.

 

第九条

一、本条约序言所列缔约各方的代衷,应于本条约生效之日后两个月内在堪培拉城开会,以后并在合适的期间和地点开会,以便交换情报、共同协商有关南极的共同利益问题,并阐述、考虑以及向本国政府建议旨在促进本条约的原则和宗旨的揩施,包括关于下列各方的措施:

(甲)南极只用于和平目的;

(乙)便利在南极的科学研究;

(丙)便利在南极的国际科学合作;

(丁)便利行使本条约第七条所规定的视察权利;

(戊)关于在南极管辖权的行使问题;

(己)南极有生资源的保护与保存。

二、任何根据第十三条而加入本条约的缔约国当其在南极进行例如建立科学站或派遣科学考察队的具体的科学研究活动而对南极表示兴趣时,有权委派代表参加本条第一款中提到的会议。

三、本条约第七条提及的观察员的报告,应送交参加本条第一款所述的会议的缔约各方的代表。

四、本条第一款所述的各项措施,应在派遣代表参加考虑这些措施的会议的缔约各方同意时才能生效。

五、本条约确立的任何或一切权利自本条约生效之日起即可行使,不论对行使这种权利的便利措施是否按照本条的规定面已被提出、考虑或同意。

 

 

ARTICLE IX


1. Representatives of the Contracting Parties named in the preamble to the present Treaty shall meet at the City of Canberra within two months after the date of entry into force of the Treaty, and thereafter at suitable intervals and places, for the purpose of exchanging information, consulting together on matters of common interest pertaining to Antarctica, and formulating and considering, and recommending to their Governments, measures in furtherance of the principles and objectives of the Treaty, including measures regarding:

(a) use of Antarctica for peaceful purposes only;

(b) facilitation of scientific research in Antarctica;

(c) facilitation of international scientific cooperation in Antarctica;

(d) facilitation of the exercise of the rights of inspection provided for in Article VII of the Treaty;

(e) questions relating to the exercise of jurisdiction in Antarctica;

(f) preservation and conservation of living resources in Antarctica.

2. Each Contracting Party which has become a party to the present Treaty by accession under Article XIII shall be entitled to appoint representatives to participate in the meetings referred to in paragraph 1 of the present Article, during such time as that Contracting Party demonstrates its interest in Antarctica by conducting substantial scientific research activity there, such as the establishment of a scientific station or the despatch of a scientific expedition.

3. Reports from the observers referred to in Article VII of the present Treaty shall be transmitted to the representatives of the Contracting Parties participating in the meetings referred to in paragraph 1 of the present Article.

4. The measures referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article shall become effective when approved by all the Contracting Parties whose representatives were entitled to participate in the meetings held to consider those measures.

5. Any or all of the rights established in the present Treaty may be exercised as from the date of entry into force of the Treaty whether or not any measures facilitating the exercise of such rights have been proposed, considered or approved as provided in this Article.

 

第十条

缔约每一方保证作出符合联合国宪章的适当的努力,务使任何人不得在南极从事违反本条约的原则和宗旨的任何活动。

 

 


ARTICLE X


Each of the Contracting Parties undertakes to exert appropriate efforts, consistent with the Charter of the United Nations, to the end that no one engages in any activity in Antarctica contrary to the principles or purposes of the present Treaty.

 

第十一条

一、如两个或更多的缔约国对本条约的解释或执行发生任何争端,则该缔约各方应彼此协商,以使该争端通过谈判、调查、调停、和解、仲裁、司法裁决或它们自已选择的其它和平手段得到解决。

二、没有得到这样解决的任何这种性质的争端,在有关争端所有各方都同意时,应提交国际法院解决,但如对提交国际法院未能达成协议,也不应解除争端各方根据本条第一款所述的各种和平手段的任何一种继续设法解决该争端的责任。

 

ARTICLE XI


1. If any dispute arises between two or more of the Contracting Parties
concerning the interpretation or application of the present Treaty, those Contracting Parties shall consult among themselves with a view to having the dispute resolved by negotiation, inquiry, mediation, conciliation, arbitration, judicial settlement or other peaceful means of their own choice. 2. Any dispute of this character not so resolved shall, with the consent, in each case, of all parties to the dispute, be referred to the International Court of Justice for settlement; but failure to reach agreement on reference to the International Court shall not absolve parties to the dispute from the responsibility of continuing to seek to resolve it by any of the various peaceful means referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article. 26 The Antarctic Treaty

 

第十二条

一、

(甲)经其代表有权参加第九条规定的会议的缔约各方的一致同意,本条约可在任何时候予以变更或修改。任何这种变更或修改应在保存国政府从所有这些缔约各方按到它们已批准这种变更或修改的通知时生效。

(乙)这种变更或修改对任何其它缔约一方的生效,应在其批准的通知已由保存国政府收到时开始。任何这样的缔约一方,依照本条第一款甲项的规定变更或修改开始生效的两年期间内尚未发出批准变更或修改的通知,应认为在该期限届满之日已退出本条约。

二、

(甲)如在本条约生效之日起满三十年后,任何一个其代表有权参加第九条规定的会议的缔约国用书面通知保存国政府的方式提出请求,则应尽快举行包括一切缔约国的会议,以便审查条约的实施情况。

(乙)在上述会议上,经出席会议的大多数缔约国,包括其代表有权参加第九条规定的会议的大多数缔约国,所同意的本条约的任何变更或修改,应由保存国政府在会议结束后立即通知一切缔约国,并应依照本条第一款的规定而生效。

(丙)任何这种变更或修改,如在通知所有缔约国之日以后两年内尚未依照本条第一款(甲)项的规定生效,则任何缔约国得在上述时期届满后的任何时侯,向保存国政府发出其退出本条约的通知;这样的退出应在保存国政府接到通知的两年后生效。

 


ARTICLE XII


1.

(a) The present Treaty may be modified or amended at any time by unanimous agreement of the Contracting Parties whose representatives are entitled to participate in the meetings provided for under Article IX. Any such modification or amendment shall enter into force when the depositary Government has received notice from all such Contracting Parties that they have ratified it.

(b) Such modification or amendment shall thereafter enter into force as to any other Contracting Party when notice of ratification by it has been received by the depositary Government. Any such Contracting Party from which no notice of ratification is received within a period of two years from the date of entry into force of the modification or amendment in accordance with the provisions of subparagraph 1(a) of this Article shall be deemed to
have withdrawn from the present Treaty on the date of the expiration of
such period.

2.

(a) If after the expiration of thirty years from the date of entry into force of the present Treaty, any of the Contracting Parties whose representatives are entitled to participate in the meetings provided for under Article IX so requests by a communication addressed to the depositary Government, a Conference of all the Contracting Parties shall be held as soon as practicable to review the operation of the Treaty.

(b) Any modification or amendment to the present Treaty which is approved at such a Conference by a majority of the Contracting Parties there represented, including a majority of those whose representatives are entitled to participate in the meetings provided for under Article IX, shall be communicated by the depositary Government to all the Contracting Parties immediately after the termination of the Conference and shall enter into force in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 1 of the present Article

(c) If any such modification or amendment has not entered into force in accordance with the provisions of subparagraph 1(a) of this Article within a period of two years after the date of its communication to all the Contracting Parties, any Contracting Party may at any time after the expiration of that period give notice to the depositary Government of its withdrawal from the present Treaty; and such withdrawal shall take effect two years after the receipt of the notice by the depositary Government.

 

第十三条

一、本条约须经各签字国批准。对于联合国任何会员国,或经其代表有权参加本条约第九条规定的会议的所有缔约国同意而邀请加入本条约的任何其它国家,本条约应予开放,任其加入。

二、批准或加入本条约应由各国根据其宪法程序实行。

三、批准书和加入书应交存于美利坚合众国政府,该国政府已被指定为保存国政府。

四、保存国政府应将每个批准书或加入书的交存日期、本条约的生效日期以及对本条约任何变更或修改的日期通知所有签字国和加入国。

五、当所有签字国都交存批准书时,本条约应对这些国家和已交存加入书的国家生效。此后本条约应对任何加人国在它交存其加人书时生效。

六、本条约应由保存国政府按照联合国宪章第一百零二条进行登记。

 

ARTICLE XIII


1. The present Treaty shall be subject to ratification by the signatory States. It shall be open for accession by any State which is a Member of the United Nations, or by any other State which may be invited to accede to the Treaty with the consent of all the Contracting Parties whose representatives are entitled to participate in the meetings provided for under Article IX of the Treaty.

2. Ratification of or accession to the present Treaty shall be effected by each State in accordance with its constitutional processes.

3. Instruments of ratification and instruments of accession shall be deposited with the Government of the United States of America, hereby designated as the depositary Government.

4. The depositary Government shall inform all signatory and acceding States of the date of each deposit of an instrument of ratification or accession, and the date of entry into force of the Treaty and of any modification or amendment thereto.

5. Upon the deposit of instruments of ratification by all the signatory States, the present Treaty shall enter into force for those States and for States which have deposited instruments of accession. Thereafter the Treaty shall enter into force for any acceding State upon the deposit of its instrument of accession. 6. The present Treaty shall be registered by the depositary Government pursuant to Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations.

 

第十四条

本条约用英文、法文、俄文和西班牙文写成,每种文本具有同等效力。本条约应交存于美利坚合众国政府的档案库中。美利坚合众国政府应将正式证明无误的副本送交所有签字国和加入国政府。

下列正式受权的全权代衷签署本条约以资证明。

1959年12月1日订于华盛顿。

 

ARTICLE XIV


The present Treaty, done in the English, French, Russian and Spanish languages, each version being equally authentic, shall be deposited in the archives of the Government of the United States of America, which shall transmit duly certified copies thereof to the Governments of the signatory and acceding States.

 

December 1, 1959, Washington D.C.

 

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